There is a serious threat that Russian troops will lay siege to some Ukrainian cities because of failing to overthrow the Ukrainian government quickly. Therefore, civilians must prepare to reduce casualties and maximize survival. This document outlines important areas where training is needed for the civilian population.
Access to water will likely be blocked intentionally – to force defenders to surrender – or due to accidental damage to water treatment facilities and pipelines. Nevertheless, water is vital for drinking, firefighting, and healing. While the supply source is still available, fill as many containers as possible. These include bottles, pots, tubs, containers, and non-traditional water containers such as condoms. Without water, you can only resist for up to three days.
Create stocks of high-calorie food for long-term storage. Start limiting your consumption now. Cook perishable food while there is electricity or as long as possible and freeze it. After the loss of electricity, store food in cold places – preferably underground – with ice and in a safe place where it will not be damaged or lost during the battle. Divide the stocks of canned fruits and vegetables into parts because they will decrease over time.
You will also need vitamin supplements. Children, the elderly, and the infirm will especially suffer from malnutrition if they eat poorly for a long time. If these people can be evacuated, they must be evacuated. It will also reduce the number of people who need to be fed during the siege.
Personal protective equipment
Civilians should stock up on such items of clothing.
Gloves: preferably tight-fitting work gloves. If the city is damaged, glass and sharp objects will be everywhere. Therefore, you will need gloves to protect yourself from injury.
Eye protection: wood chips, broken glass, and burns from explosions – all this will pose a threat to the eyes. Goggles can be extremely important.
Ear protection: Explosions can cause significant hearing damage. Having ear protection when you are not in the shelter will reduce the risk of injury.
Helmet: Ballistic helmets will become a valuable item, and a civilian in such a helmet can be considered military. However, construction and bicycle helmets or other civilian equipment can protect your head from falling structures and debris, as well as from injuries in damaged buildings.
Masks: Face masks will be needed when moving through smoky buildings to reduce inhalation of harmful substances.
Shoes: Civilians should have road shoes made of durable materials. It is also better to have waterproof shoes.
Dry clothing: Civilians should have a set of warm clothing in a plastic bag at their location. These should be clothes that you can change into to sleep or relax. In addition, it should be kept dry.
Work clothes: When leaving the shelter, civilians must change into work clothes. Clothing should not be made of polyester, as it can melt and cause injury. Clothes can get wet from bad weather or sweat. You may wear woolen clothes because wool retains heat even when wet. Civilians should dry these clothes while sleeping and separate them from dry clothes.
Civilians should limit the number of sharp debris caused by shelling. It is best to protect the windows with boards. Use plywood sheets or corrugated boards. Cover the windows with thick cardboard and carpets if you don’t have them. Civilians can also reduce fragmentation from the blast by stacking sand or soil outside the windows and brick walls.
Inside the rooms, turn heavy furniture such as sofas or tables so that they are between the inner load-bearing wall and the outer wall. Bullets usually pass through brick walls, doors, and cars. The wall is not a reliable cover. Civilians should try to establish two levels of barrier between themselves and the source of the fire if they come under fire from a shelter.
As the urban environment is polluted during the shelling, a lot of dirt and dust seeps into the clothes of soldiers and civilians, who will increasingly look the same. It is especially true at night. In addition, as opportunities for shooting at outdoor targets change rapidly, there is a significant risk that civilians may be fired upon while moving between buildings.
To avoid this, drill holes in the walls between adjunct buildings, preferably after consultation with a specialist, so you don’t go outside. Then, using a clothesline, fishing line, or cable, place flags and other materials between buildings to block direct visibility and top-down viewing.
First of all, healthcare professionals will be overwhelmed as the number of victims increases. Therefore, they should conduct training for their fellow citizens on first aid and stabilization of the victims. It will give specialists time to help wounded civilians. Doctors and nurses should organize training for civilians who remain in cities. The main consumables include:
Bandages: Ideally, you should create a supply of elastic medical bandages. In reality, civilians can prepare the longest possible pieces of material 15-20 cm wide. They need to be rolled up and fastened with an elastic band. They must be clean and dry.
Food film or polyethylene film is needed for two types of injuries: burns and open injuries of the abdominal cavity. Before applying the bandage, you should cover the burn area with food film to help prevent the bandage from sticking to the skin and infecting the wound. In addition, you should hide the exposed parts of the intestine inside the body and, if this is not possible, place them in polyethylene with water to prevent drying and wrapped under bandages.
Tourniquet: A tourniquet is a device that tightens around the limb to reduce blood flow to it, at the risk of death from critical bleeding. You can make it from a meter-long cord. To do this, tie a knot that will tighten but do not loosen when the loop is tightened. Ideally, every civilian should carry two to four such tourniquets. Critical bleeding is fatal within 5 minutes. However, the tourniquet can survive for up to an hour with proper application.
Stapler and superglue: Stapler is a fast and effective way to suture a wound. You can use superglue to close torn wounds.
Splints: splints are wooden slats the length of a limb or joint attached to the body to secure broken bones. Due to this, you can move immobile injured people. Furniture can be a useful source of such wooden slats.
Alcohol: Alcohol, especially vodka, can sterilize or at least clean up injuries before applying bandages.
Bandages and gauze: Scraps of cloth, if clean, are used to cover wounds as bandages to absorb blood and stabilize foreign objects that may have penetrated the body, preventing them from causing further internal damage while moving the patient.
Adhesive tape: Adhesive tape and polyethylene can be used to make a sash that acts as a valve in the event of a lung puncture. This can reduce the speed at which the lungs fill with moisture. A suction wound of the chest (pneumothorax) is usually fatal within 30 minutes. Such a tool can prolong life by up to an hour and make the patient more mobile, which will increase the likelihood of receiving professional medical care in the form of lung sealing.
To prevent widespread contamination of residential areas, civilian groups should organize measures to dispose of waste safely.
Russian military fires on clusters of mobile phones. In Syria, this has led to regular strikes on hospitals. It is important to minimize mobile signals in these areas for civilians sheltered or using medical facilities with the military. This requires discipline.
Mobile phones should be switched to airplane mode and turned off before approaching such public areas. They must remain switched off until civilians leave the confines of such a shelter. Pattern behavior is also dangerous. Civilians should try not to take the same routes to and from points every day and change the arrival and departure times from key locations.
Many of the issues discussed above will be inconvenient for civilians when put into practice. For example, nutrition should be balanced, but this will lead to a breach of unity if such regulation is not perceived as fair. Families will be emotional and irrational in their treatment of the bodies of their dead relatives. To not interfere with civil protection, it is necessary to discuss and agree on actions within communities. It is best to do this in neighborhoods, shelters, or other places, depending on the specific geography of cities. There should be an area where you can meet to resolve issues and exchange information in such places.
The group should agree on storing and distributing food and other supplies, maintaining sanitation, and disposing bodies. Discussing difficult topics before they become a reality will reduce shock and strengthen the will to resist.
Relations between civil and military
When the civilian population adapts to life in the war zone, the city will disintegrate into very localized areas. There may be mines, mine traps, different restrictions, contaminated soil, and other problems in different parts of these geographical areas. Military control of these territories may also change, even without changes in the structure of the civilian population.
Therefore, city groups should appoint their trustees, who will meet with military representatives of the Ukrainian or Russian armed forces, depending on who controls the territory, to discuss issues affecting the security of the civilian population. The community should empower these individuals to make decisions when interacting with the military.
With these and other means, you can survive. Survival is the key to resistance.
If you have seen enemy’s Subversive Intelligence Groups or saboteurs
You should pay attention if suspicious people:
have a distinct/typical russian accent
don’t orient in the area
carry out photo/video recording of the area
ask for a mobile phone to make a call
remember their features (clothing, appearance, physical features) ATTENTION: under no circumstances take photos/videos of these people. This can be dangerous! Don’t give them documents, don’t tell them the way, don’t give your phone to make a call, and if you do, record the number they called
by any available ways, inform the Security Service of Ukraine about the time and place where you saw the alleged saboteurs, as well as their number, context of the conversation, car number, color and car brand, direction of movement, features.
If there are representatives of the territorial defense or law enforcement officers nearby, try to detain the saboteurs. It is worth doing only if you’re confident in your abilities and have a numerous advantage over the enemy.